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Resolved: The benefits of genetically modified food outweigh the risks (Texas UIL LD) Bibliography

News articles GM foods at the Guardian GM Foods Good/Safe Risk-only assessment of genetically engineered crops is too risky (2019). Every new or improved technology, regardless of its particular field or application, can involve risk, potential risk, or perception of risk by stakeholders and/or end users. However, it is often overlooked that the rejection of technology also has risks in the form of missed opportunities for benefits. For example, a

Resolved: The United States ought to eliminate subsidies for fossil fuel (Argument list, bib, files)

ARGUMENT OUTLINE   Affirmative   Advantages –   Climate change — all impacts, including ethical obligations to reduce climate change   General environmental harms to coal production General environmental harms to oil production   Coal mining destroys the environment   Environmental racism/environmental justice   Natural resource conflicts   High deficits bad   Renewables good, including economic benefits   Nuclear power good   Objectivism/libertarianism — government subsidies bad   Free trade

Resolved: A just nation ought not use offensive cyber operations to target civilian infrastructure.

Definitions Three Types of Cybere Security (2019) There are different methods of protecting data. Therefore, Maryville University has devised three cyber security online degree tracks so that aspiring specialists can gain skills and knowledge applicable to the career they want to pursue. These paths are typically broken up as follows: Offensive Track: Deploys a proactive approach to security through the use of ethical hacking Defensive Track: Uses a reactive approach

Resolved: The United States ought to act as the employer of last resort.

Wikipedia —  Employers of last resort (ELR) are employers in an economy to whom workers go for jobs when no other jobs are available; the term is by analogy with “lender of last resort“. The phrase is used in two senses: undesirable jobs, often private sector, which are only taken as a last resort; a formal government job guarantee program, where the government promises to act as employer of last resort, employing all comers. The sense of

Resolved: States ought to eliminate their nuclear arsenals (file, bibliography, argument list)

Resolved: States ought to eliminate their nuclear arsenals (file, bibliography, argument list)

421 page initial file — General On creating the conditions for nuclear disarmament (2019) Related: Should the US expand and modernize its nuclear arsenal? The Millennials’ Nuclear Weapons Dilemma (2019).  When survival demands one to be unflinchingly red in tooth and claw, the logic of brutality prevails. This persuasive fact compels the development of weapons of mass destruction — nuclear, chemical, biological, etc. No religion, peace evangelist, nor holy man

Resolved: In the United States, colleges and universities ought not consider standardized tests in undergraduate admissions decisions.

Resolved: In the United States, colleges and universities ought not consider standardized tests in undergraduate admissions decisions.

Affirmative Results inaccurate Results based on class Result based on race Costs of administering Negative Need an objective admissions criteria since schools vary Tests accurate measure college potential Affirmative Abolish standardized testing through college admissions (2018). This is a brief article that argues against standardized testing for college admissions. The Socialist Case Against the SAT (2019).  It also turns out that the process of SAT test-question selection is flawed in